APEX: Autonomic Performance Environment for eXascale
One of the key components of the XPRESS project is a new approach to performance observation, measurement, analysis and runtime decision making in order to optimize performance. The particular challenges of accurately measuring the performance characteristics of ParalleX  applications (as well as other asynchronous multitasking runtime architectures) requires a new approach to parallel performance observation. The standard model of multiple operating system processes and threads observing themselves in a first-person manner while writing out performance profiles or traces for offline analysis will not adequately capture the full execution context, nor provide opportunities for runtime adaptation within OpenX. The approach taken in the XPRESS project is a new performance measurement system, called (Autonomic Performance Environment for eXascale). APEX includes methods for information sharing between the layers of the software stack, from the hardware through operating and runtime systems, all the way to domain specific or legacy applications. The performance measurement components incorporate relevant information across stack layers, with merging of third-person performance observation of node-level and global resources, remote processes, and both operating and runtime system threads. For a complete academic description of APEX, see the publication "APEX: An Autonomic Performance Environment for eXascale" .
In short, APEX is an introspection and runtime adaptation library for asynchronous multitasking runtime systems. However, APEX is not only useful for AMT/AMR runtimes running on future exascale systems - it can be used by any application wanting to perform runtime adaptation to deal with heterogeneous and/or variable environments.
APEX provides an API for measuring actions within a runtime. The API includes methods for timer start/stop, as well as sampled counter values. APEX is designed to be integrated into a runtime, library and/or application and provide performance introspection for the purpose of runtime adaptation. While APEX can provide rudimentary post-mortem performance analysis measurement, there are many other performance measurement tools that perform that task much better (such as TAU http://tau.uoregon.edu). That said, APEX includes an event listener that integrates with the TAU measurement system, so APEX events can be forwarded to TAU and collected in a TAU profile and/or trace to be used for post-mortem performance anlaysis.
APEX provides a mechanism for dynamic runtime behavior, either for autotuning or adaptation to changing environment. The infrastruture that provides the adaptation is the Policy Engine, which executes policies either periodically or triggered by events. The policies have access to the performance state as observed by the APEX introspection API. APEX is integrated with Active Harmony (http://www.dyninst.org/harmony) to provide dynamic search for autotuning.
- Thomas Sterling, Daniel Kogler, Matthew Anderson, and Maciej Brodowicz. "SLOWER: A performance model for Exascale computing". Supercomputing Frontiers and Innovations, 1:42–57, September 2014. http://superfri.org/superfri/article/view/10
- Kevin A. Huck, Allan Porterfield, Nick Chaimov, Hartmut Kaiser, Allen D. Malony, Thomas Sterling, Rob Fowler. "An Autonomic Performance Environment for eXascale", Journal of Supercomputing Frontiers and Innovations, 2015. http://superfri.org/superfri/article/view/64